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CORONAVIRUS CASUALTIES (Oct 28):- GLOBAL:- Total Cases: 4,46,01,770; Total Deaths: 11,76,678 Recovered: 3,26,16,456 BELGIUM:- Total Cases: 3,47,289; Total Deaths: 11,038 BRAZIL:- Total Cases: 54,45,475; Total deaths: 1,58,101 CANADA:- Total Cases: 2,24,653; Total Deaths: 10,023 CHINA:- Total Cases: 85,868; Total Deaths: 4,635 FRANCE:- Total Cases: 11,98,695; Total Deaths: 35,541 GERMANY:- Total Cases: 4,77,203; Total Deaths: 10,347 INDIA:- Total Cases: 80,34,702; Total Deaths: 1,20,524 INDONESIA:- Total Cases: 4,00,483;Total Deaths: 13,612 IRAN:- Total Cases: 5,88,648; Total Deaths: 33,714 ITALY:- Total Cases: 5,89,766; Total Deaths: 37,905 JAPAN:- Total Cases: 98,116; Total Deaths: 1,730 MEXICO:-Total Cases: 9,01,268; Total Deaths: 89,814 NETHERLANDS:- Total Cases: 3,19,991; Total Deaths: 7,202 PHILIPPINES:- Total Cases: 3,75,180; Total Deaths: 7,114 RUSSIA:- Total Cases: 15,63,976; Total Deaths: 26,935 S KOREA:- Total Cases: 26,146; Total Deaths: 461 SPAIN:-Total Cases: 11,94,681; Total Deaths: 35,466 SWEDEN:- Total Cases: 1,17,913 Total Deaths: 5,933 SWITZERLAND:-Total Cases: 1,35,658; Total Deaths: 2,158 UAE:- Total Cases: 1,29,024; Total Deaths: 485 UK:- Total Cases: 9,42,275; Total Deaths: 45,675; US:- Total Cases: 90,86,312; Total Deaths: 2,32,709 - India Travel Times.Com   [Estd: 1998]       * * *    Travel, More Travel, Travel Means A Million Things     * * *    
A more effective, simple, cheap nasal spray vaccine on its way
The nasal vaccine being developed is less invasive and quickly absorbed by the nasal mucosa. There is no fear of diseases transmission through needles and anaphylactic response associated with injections. In the case of corona, that makes nasal mucosa its primary breeding ground, "local immunity matters." According to the researchers, nasal vaccination can also prevent transmission.

NEW DELHI, Oct 12: So far there is no medicine to treat coronavirus nor any vaccine ready for mass immunisation even as globally the virus has claimed over a million lives in the past few months since it started in Wuhan in China in December last. Currently there are around 200 intramuscular vaccines in various stages of development, a few of them in the final clinical trials.

Oral and intramuscular administration are the common methods of vaccination till date. However, the global healthcare crisis created by the devastating new pathogen has prompted research on intranasal vaccination as an alternative mode which is being considered as more convenient and effective route especially because it can be self-administered.

The new coronavirus inoculation is similar to the nasal spray for flu immunisation. It is being developed in the US, UK and Hong Kong. A dual flu-covid nasal spray vaccine is also to start human trials next month in Hong Kong, according to reports.

The nasal vaccine candidates currently being tried are using SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. It had produced better results in animal studies. It will be less invasive and is quickly absorbed by the nasal mucosa. Production and administration (by self) is also cheap and affordable.

Respiratory viruses enter through the nose and the nasal mucosa is the primary area for the generation of abundant copies of its genome by entering the human cell in instant time. From the nasal mucosa it moves along the airway during inhalation into the airways and the lungs, the ultimate target of the virus.

The nasal mucosa is the first barrier the respiratory diseases-causing microbes encounter. The immune-competent mucosa lines over the sinus, airways and the lungs. As nasal mucosa is the primary breeding ground for the corona, it makes sense in strengthening the mucosal immunity through mucosal antibody secretion by nasal vaccination unlike intramuscular vaccination which creates systemic response. Nasal inoculation can also prevent transmission.

Additionally, nasal vaccination does not cause fear of diseases transmission through needles and anaphylactic response associated with injections. In self-administration, the vaccine cost also will come down drastically.

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