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CORONAVIRUS CASUALTIES (Oct 28):- GLOBAL:- Total Cases: 4,46,01,770; Total Deaths: 11,76,678 Recovered: 3,26,16,456 BELGIUM:- Total Cases: 3,47,289; Total Deaths: 11,038 BRAZIL:- Total Cases: 54,45,475; Total deaths: 1,58,101 CANADA:- Total Cases: 2,24,653; Total Deaths: 10,023 CHINA:- Total Cases: 85,868; Total Deaths: 4,635 FRANCE:- Total Cases: 11,98,695; Total Deaths: 35,541 GERMANY:- Total Cases: 4,77,203; Total Deaths: 10,347 INDIA:- Total Cases: 80,34,702; Total Deaths: 1,20,524 INDONESIA:- Total Cases: 4,00,483;Total Deaths: 13,612 IRAN:- Total Cases: 5,88,648; Total Deaths: 33,714 ITALY:- Total Cases: 5,89,766; Total Deaths: 37,905 JAPAN:- Total Cases: 98,116; Total Deaths: 1,730 MEXICO:-Total Cases: 9,01,268; Total Deaths: 89,814 NETHERLANDS:- Total Cases: 3,19,991; Total Deaths: 7,202 PHILIPPINES:- Total Cases: 3,75,180; Total Deaths: 7,114 RUSSIA:- Total Cases: 15,63,976; Total Deaths: 26,935 S KOREA:- Total Cases: 26,146; Total Deaths: 461 SPAIN:-Total Cases: 11,94,681; Total Deaths: 35,466 SWEDEN:- Total Cases: 1,17,913 Total Deaths: 5,933 SWITZERLAND:-Total Cases: 1,35,658; Total Deaths: 2,158 UAE:- Total Cases: 1,29,024; Total Deaths: 485 UK:- Total Cases: 9,42,275; Total Deaths: 45,675; US:- Total Cases: 90,86,312; Total Deaths: 2,32,709 - India Travel Times.Com   [Estd: 1998]       * * *    Travel, More Travel, Travel Means A Million Things     * * *    
No proof of coronavirus reinfection, relapse: ICMR & others

Recovered coronavirus patients are likely not reinfected. Any post-recovery symptoms alone will not confirm reinfection or relapse. Presence of 'active' coronavirus only can establish a reinfection or relapse of covid. On the other hand, in post-recovery cases not showing symptoms but test results coming positive, they could be false positives. How?

NEW DELHI, Aug 20: There have been reports of post-recovery symptoms from some States like Maharashtra in India but they may be symptoms which need to be investigated further. Presence of 'active' coronavirus only can establish a reinfection or relapse, not symptoms alone, according to ICMR sources.

On the other hand, there have been reports of recovered patients not showing symptoms but their test results showing positive. These are false positives.

In South Korean CDC studies, tests have shown presence of virus post-recovery but these tests only establish the presence of viral RNA fragments. These tests are not designed to identify if they are 'active' or dead fragments left behind after the infection. These left over dead viral particles are incapable of reinfection or infecting others.

There have also been reports of recovered patients testing positive for coronavirus again from China, Japan and Italy, as long as 10 weeks later. But experts rule out reinfection or reactivation as these are false positives. Once infected - mild, serious or asymptomatic - they categorically rule out reinfection. There is probably long-term immunity against coronavirus, once infected, lastimg at least two years.

What are these false positives. Recovered patients who tested positive for covid are likely not reinfected. Those tests were detecting dead viral fragments left over. The Koraen investigation of 10,000 cases found that dead viral fragments caused 290 recovered patients to test positive. The tests were detecting the ribonucleic acid of the dead virus.

Even PCR tests cannot distinguish between living or dead virus, leading to false positives. Fragments of the virus can be detected for up to two months, research has found. In case of respiratory epithelial cells, they have a half-life of up to three months.

The process in which covid produces a new virus takes place only in host cells and does not infiltrate the nucleus of the cell unlike Hepatitis-B or human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) virus. This partly explains why it does not cause chronic infection, recurrence, relapse or reactivation. The covid virus stays outside of the host cell's nucleus, replicates there in large numbers and they in turn quickly burst out and infiltrate other cells.

Covid replcates in the cytoplasm of the cell and not the nucleus. It does not get into the nucleus and the DNA and infection does not become chronic, unlike HIV. Thus reactivation takes place in HIV, becoming chronic infections, and not in coronavirus.

Again, the absence of antibodies (immunoglobulins) is not an indication of a previous infection. Antibodies are formed two-three weeks after the first recovery and lasts for only two months. In the absence of the guard, memory cells (memory lymphocytes) signal the B-cells to produce any number of antibodies when there is a fresh viral attack. Therefore, absence of antibodies does not necessarily indicate a previous no-infection.

The KCDC has also not found a single case where a reportedly reinfected patient passing the coronavirus to another person.

Experts are also ruling out reinfection by new mutated virus as coronavirus is a slow mutating virus. It does not mutate so quickly.

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